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Middle School Social Studies 7

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Middle School Social Studies 7

All Middle School students should belong to this group for messages, assignments and discussions.

Members: 60
Latest Activity: Nov 29, 2011

SOCIAL STUDIES

CURRENT EVENTS

 

ECONOMICS

 

Economics is the study of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

 

Production - the making or providing of goods and services

Consumption - the use of goods and services

Distribution - dispersing of goods and services  

Economic Systems

  • Traditional - An economy in which customs and habits from the past are used to resolve production & distribution of goods & services
  • Command -  An economy in which the government controls production & distribution of goods & services
  • Market - An economy in which the market (consumers & producers) influence the production & distribution of goods & services
  • Mixed - An economy that contains elements of two or more economic systems.  Most countries in the world have mixed economies.

Every economic system must answer these three questions are production:

  1. What to produce
  2. How to produce it
  3. Who gets it

 

Trade

 

Trade is the exchange of goods & services.

Trade barriers are policies that restrict or limit trade.

  • Embargo - prohibits all trade
  • Tariff - a tax on imports
  • Quota - limit on the amount of imports
  • Subsidy - government payments to exporters
  • Standard - health, safety or environmental restriction

 

Consumers:  people who use goods & services

Wants:  Desires that can be satisfied by consuming a good or service

Producers:  people & companies that use resources to make goods & services

Wages:  Payment for work done based on hours spent or output produced

Savings:  money that is set aside for future use

Scarcity:  when wants exceed available goods & services

Opportunity Cost:  the second-best choice that must be given up 

 

 

AFRICA

Africa is a continent, not a country!

 

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT FORMS OF GOVERNMENT


Citizen Participation

 

Autocracy:  One person in power, no citizen participation

 

Oligarchy:  Small group in power, no citizen participation

 

Democracy:  Various leaders elected by citizens

 

    Direct:              Citizens directly vote on each law or issue

    Representative:  Citizens elect representatives to vote for them

                            (also known as a Republic)

 

    Presidential:      Leader - President

                             President & Congress elected in separate elections

    Parliamentary:   Leader - Prime Minister or Premier

                             Minister is chosen from elected representatives

 

How Power is Distributed

 

Unitary:  Central government holds the power, i.e., Japan

 

Federal:  Power is shared between central and local governments, i.e., USA

 

Confederation:  Local governments hold the power, i.e., Confederate States of Amer

 


******************

 

PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENT:  A movement which seeks to unify native Africans and those of African heritage into a "global African community".

 

******************

 

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SOUTH AFRICA

1400s   Zulu & Xhosa tribes establish large kingdoms in SA

1652     Dutch, the 1st European settlers, establish Cape Town

1852     British take control of Cape Town

1902     Boer War between British & Dutch, British win

1910     SA becomes independent nation

1948     Apartheid is introduced

1962     Nelson Mandela is arrested and imprisoned

1976     Hundreds of protesters killed in Soweto

1990     End of apartheid announce by Pres. deKlerk, Mandela released

1994     Mandela elected president

1999     Mandela retires

 

APARTHEID: apartness, separateness - segregation and racial discrimination toward non-whites in Africa

NELSON MANDELA:  An anti-apartheid activist who became a political prisoner for 27 years.  He became a symbol of the injustices of South African policies towards non-whites. Along with President deKlerk, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He was elected South Africa's first black president when South Africa had its first truly open elections.  He served as president from 1994-1999. 

 

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT AFRICAN CULTURE

 

Difference between

     Nationality      country where you were born

     Religion          belief system you adhere to

     Ethnicity        group you share characteristics with such as
                         language, appearance, traditions & customs

 

 

Religion in Africa:  Religion plays an important role in the lives of the people of Africa.

Most Africans are either Christian or Muslim.  Many followers of both these religions also practice African traditional religions.  Approximately 15% of Africans exclusively follow traditional religions, and a small percentage are non-religious.

 

 

 

 

A small sample of ethnic groups in Africa:

 

Arab

Ashanti

Bantu

Swahili

Region

North & Northeast

Ghana, West Africa

Central & Southern
(Sub-Sahara)

Eastern Coast

Language

Arabic

Twi (Asante)

varied, majority - Swahili/Zulu

Kiswahili

Religion

Islam

Traditional Religions & Christianity

Christianity & Traditional Religions

Islam

 

*****************

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY

 

FACTS ABOUT AFRICA

  • Africa is the second largest continent (after Asia).
  • Africa is the most centrally located of all the continents. Both the prime meridian and equator go through it.
  • Africa is the most tropical of all continents.
  • Africa is as long as it is broad.

 

You should know where these are:

1  Democratic Republic of the
     Congo

2  South Africa

3  Egypt

4  Kenya

5  Nigeria

6  Sudan

 

There are approximately 53 countries in Africa.

 

 

 

You should know where & what these are:

 

Savanna - grassland with scattered trees & shrubs

Sahel - transitional zone that separates the Sahara from the rainforest

Tropical Rainforest - dense evergreen forest with heavy rainfall, 90% has been deforested

Deserts

      Sahara - largest hot desert in the world, covers most of Northern Africa, reaches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic

      Kalahari - arid to semi-arid sandy region in Southern Africa, home to the San Bushman

Rivers

       Nile River - longest river in the world, flows north, 2 major tributaries:  Blue Nile & White Nile, important to Ancient Egypt

       Congo River - deepest river in the world, located in central Africa, surrounded by rainforest, crosses the equator twice, also known as Zaire

       Niger River -  located in Western Africa, has an unusual inner delta, empties into the Atlantic Ocean

Lakes

      Lake Victoria -largest lake in Africa, named for Queen Victoria of Great Britain

      Lake Tanganyika - longest lake in Africa, so deep the bottom waters are called "Fossil Water"

 

NOTE:  There are very few natural harbors in Africa.

 

You should be able to answer these questions:

 

What contributes to water pollution in Africa? Pesticides and fertilizers used by farmers, by products from mining and manufacturing, oil spills, human waste

 

What problems do water pollution cause? Unclean drinking water – causes illness & death, harms fishing industry – kills fish or makes unfit to eat, effects trade & farming

 

Why is there a shrinking supply of water in Africa? Climate change, deforestation, population growth, agriculture use for irrigation, drought

 

Why are landlocked countries in Africa some of the poorest in the world?  Can’t trade as easily, have to wait longer for things, grow slowly

 

How is soil affected by deforestation?  When trees are gone, nothing remains to hold the soil in place, wind & rain erode soil, washing vital nutrients away, sun bakes soil

 

What has led to desertification in Africa? Poor farming practices, land clearing, overgrazing of livestock, drought, opulation growth, slash & burn agricultural practice, cleared for crops – topsoil blows away

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Comment Wall

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Comment by Chad Micheal Rempe on June 9, 2011 at 10:44am

grr

 

 

Comment by Mahaela Gomez (Pinkie Pie) on May 11, 2011 at 3:24pm
I need something that starts with "Y". PLEASE!!!!! :((
Comment by Dalton Booker on March 10, 2011 at 4:48pm
What are some ys
Comment by Brandon Beckum on March 10, 2011 at 10:50am
wat in africa starts with h
Comment by Elias Altamirano on March 9, 2011 at 9:37pm

do you know what in Africa starts with v?

 

Comment by Elias Altamirano on March 9, 2011 at 9:37pm
wow
Comment by Jasmine Yesenia Perez on March 9, 2011 at 9:59am
No it doesn't. (giggle)
Comment by Evan Amaral on March 8, 2011 at 10:03am

I wonder if this counts as an African Ape....

Comment by chris harden on January 26, 2011 at 11:39am
thanks for the study guide
Comment by Roquita RaRa Way on January 25, 2011 at 7:19pm
i know what everything is but not the kalahari
 

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