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Latest Activity: Nov 29, 2011
Production - the making or providing of goods and services
Consumption - the use of goods and servicesDistribution - dispersing of goods and services
Every economic system must answer these three questions are production:
Trade is the exchange of goods & services.
Trade barriers are policies that restrict or limit trade.
Consumers: people who use goods & services
Wants: Desires that can be satisfied by consuming a good or service
Producers: people & companies that use resources to make goods & services
Wages: Payment for work done based on hours spent or output produced
Savings: money that is set aside for future use
Scarcity: when wants exceed available goods & services
Opportunity Cost: the second-best choice that must be given up
Africa is a continent, not a country!
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
Autocracy: One person in power, no citizen participation
Oligarchy: Small group in power, no citizen participation
Democracy: Various leaders elected by citizens
Direct: Citizens directly vote on each law or issue
Representative: Citizens elect representatives to vote for them
(also known as a Republic)
Presidential: Leader - President
President & Congress elected in separate elections
Parliamentary: Leader - Prime Minister or Premier
Minister is chosen from elected representatives
How Power is Distributed
Unitary: Central government holds the power, i.e., Japan
Federal: Power is shared between central and local governments, i.e., USA
Confederation: Local governments hold the power, i.e., Confederate States of Amer
PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENT: A movement which seeks to unify native Africans and those of African heritage into a "global African community".
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SOUTH AFRICA
1652 Dutch, the 1st European settlers, establish Cape Town
1852 British take control of Cape Town
1902 Boer War between British & Dutch, British win
1910 SA becomes independent nation
1948 Apartheid is introduced
1962 Nelson Mandela is arrested and imprisoned
1976 Hundreds of protesters killed in Soweto
1990 End of apartheid announce by Pres. deKlerk, Mandela released
1994 Mandela elected president
1999 Mandela retires
APARTHEID: apartness, separateness - segregation and racial discrimination toward non-whites in Africa
NELSON MANDELA: An anti-apartheid activist who became a political prisoner for 27 years. He became a symbol of the injustices of South African policies towards non-whites. Along with President deKlerk, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He was elected South Africa's first black president when South Africa had its first truly open elections. He served as president from 1994-1999.
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT AFRICAN CULTURE
Nationality country where you were born
Religion belief system you adhere to
Ethnicity group you share characteristics with such as
language, appearance, traditions & customs
Religion in Africa: Religion plays an important role in the lives of the people of Africa.
Most Africans are either Christian or Muslim. Many followers of both these religions also practice African traditional religions. Approximately 15% of Africans exclusively follow traditional religions, and a small percentage are non-religious.
A small sample of ethnic groups in Africa:
North & Northeast
Ghana, West Africa
Central & Southern
varied, majority - Swahili/Zulu
Traditional Religions & Christianity
Christianity & Traditional Religions
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA
1 Democratic Republic of the
2 South Africa
There are approximately 53 countries in Africa.
Savanna - grassland with scattered trees & shrubs
Sahel - transitional zone that separates the Sahara from the rainforest
Tropical Rainforest - dense evergreen forest with heavy rainfall, 90% has been deforested
Sahara - largest hot desert in the world, covers most of Northern Africa, reaches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic
Kalahari - arid to semi-arid sandy region in Southern Africa, home to the San Bushman
Nile River - longest river in the world, flows north, 2 major tributaries: Blue Nile & White Nile, important to Ancient Egypt
Congo River - deepest river in the world, located in central Africa, surrounded by rainforest, crosses the equator twice, also known as Zaire
Niger River - located in Western Africa, has an unusual inner delta, empties into the Atlantic Ocean
Lake Victoria -largest lake in Africa, named for Queen Victoria of Great Britain
Lake Tanganyika - longest lake in Africa, so deep the bottom waters are called "Fossil Water"
NOTE: There are very few natural harbors in Africa.
What contributes to water pollution in Africa? Pesticides and fertilizers used by farmers, by products from mining and manufacturing, oil spills, human waste
What problems do water pollution cause? Unclean drinking water – causes illness & death, harms fishing industry – kills fish or makes unfit to eat, effects trade & farming
Why is there a shrinking supply of water in Africa? Climate change, deforestation, population growth, agriculture use for irrigation, drought
Why are landlocked countries in Africa some of the poorest in the world? Can’t trade as easily, have to wait longer for things, grow slowly
How is soil affected by deforestation? When trees are gone, nothing remains to hold the soil in place, wind & rain erode soil, washing vital nutrients away, sun bakes soil
What has led to desertification in Africa? Poor farming practices, land clearing, overgrazing of livestock, drought, opulation growth, slash & burn agricultural practice, cleared for crops – topsoil blows away
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